Group Therapy and Multiple Therapy
Note: Page numbers enclosed in parentheses are citations from The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler: A systematic presentation in selections from his writings. (H. L. and R. R. Ansbacher, Eds.). © 1964, Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. Used by permission of Perseus Books Group.
Some have said that Adler originated group therapy in Vienna in 1920, when he began counseling children, teachers, and families in the presence of the larger group of persons interested in the problems that disturb their relationships. Issues that had previously been private matters were now discussed among others for the first time (Ganz, 1953, p. 109). Though Adler did not practice group therapy as it is known today, he suggested group treatment of criminals, saying, "While I do not believe it would be possible to give every criminal an individual treatment, we could contribute much by group treatment," going on to discuss the kinds of work that could be done in such a group, and predicting that "we could achieve great results" (p. 348). Terner and Pew (1978) report that Dreikurs introduced group therapy into his private practice in 1928, and was probably the first psychiatrist to do so (p. 78).
Multiple therapy (or co-therapy) refers to the involvement of more than one therapist in a case. It is not uncommon for two therapists to work together with a client in the process of lifestyle assessment, and a co-therapist team made up of male and female partners can be particularly valuable in couple and marriage counseling and therapy. In group therapy, while it is typical for one therapist to facilitate the group, two can enrich the experience, and the presence of two leaders can allow for the formation of sub-groups at particular times. A number of Adlerian practitioners have addressed the uses of multiple and group therapy.
For Group Therapy, see Carlson, J., Watts, R. E., & Maniacci, M. P. (2006); Dinkmeyer, D. C. Jr., & Sperry, L. (2000); Manaster, G. J. & Corsini, R. J. (1982); and Sonstegard, M. A. & Bitter, J. R. (with Pelonis, P.) (2004).
For Multiple Therapy, see Dreikurs, R., Shulman, B. H., & Mosak, H. H. (1984); Powers, R. L. & Griffith, J. (1987).
© Griffith, J., & Powers, R. L. (2007). The Lexicon of Adlerian Psychology: 106 terms Associated with the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler (2nd ed.). Port Townsend, WA: Adlerian Psychology Associates (p. 47).
Definitions of concepts are used by permission of Jane Griffith. A comprehensive list of concepts and definitions can be found in The Lexicon of Adlerian Psychology: 106 Terms Associated with the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler by Jane Griffith and Robert L. Powers, available for purchase on Amazon.com.
Carlson, J., Watts, R. E, & Maniacci, M.P. (2006). Adlerian therapy: Theory and practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Dinkmeyer, D. C., Jr., & Sperry, L. (2000). Counseling and psychotherapy: An integrated Individual Psychology approach (3rd ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Dreikurs R., Shulman, B. H., & Mosak, H. H. (1984). Multiple psychotherapy: The use of two therapists with one patient. Chicago: Alfred Adler Institute.
Ganz, M. (1953). The psychology of Alfred Adler and the development of the child. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. (Original work published 1935)
Manaster, G. J., & Corsini, R. J. (1982). Individual Psychology: Theory and practice. Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock.
Powers, R. L., & Griffith, J. (1987). Understanding life-style: The psycho-clarity process. Port Townsend, WA: Adlerian Psychology Associates.
Sonstegard, M. A., & Bitter, J.R. (with Pelonis, P.). (2004). Adlerian group counseling and therapy: Step-by-step. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Terner, J., & Pew, W. L. (1978). The courage to be imperfect: The life and work of Rudolf
Dreikurs. New York: Hawthorn.